Antibiotics: Introduction – Nursing | Lecturio

Antibiotics: Introduction – Nursing | Lecturio


[Music] hi and welcome to our video in introduction to antibiotics okay when it comes down to antibiotics it’s us against them and by them I mean bacteria so that’s what we’re going to talk about how do we win the war against infection now antibiotics are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections yeah let me say that again antibiotics are medications used to treat bacterial infections viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics now every time we go to the doctor people usually want to leave with some type of medication but it’s really important that only bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics not viruses now here’s why you’re gonna see this ginormous chart come up to review and I’ve listed the common reasons people go to the doctor but I want you to see which one are viruses and you’ll notice in that far column does an antibiotic needed it’s colored red and the word is no so a cold or a runny nose no antibiotic isn’t appropriate a bronchitis no the flu no a sore throat it’s except strep throat no and fluid in the middle ear like otitis media the answer is still no now let’s talk about why that is such a big deal but first I want to show you lots of examples of bacterial infections that we do treat with antibiotics in fact I’ve listed so many of them for you it’s gonna take two slides for you to see them now I’m not expecting you to erase fear all these names but spend a minute pause and see which one of these you’ve heard put a small checkmark or circle the bugs that you’re familiar with ready for the second slide okay now let’s talk about antibiotic resistance that’s why it is so important that we only treat bacterial infections with antibiotics because if we misuse or overuse antibiotics these bacteria are pretty smart they can develop the ability to defeat the drugs we designed to kill them and we’ve seen it happen over and over again so the number one reason we want to appropriately use antibiotics only treat infections that should be treated with antibiotics they have to be bacterial it’s because if we misuse that if we treat viruses with antibiotics if we overuse antibiotics these developer these antibiotics are going to develop a resistance so that means we’re gonna start giving the drugs and the bugs know how to defeat that so let’s walk through that so how does antibiotic resistance happen well the term antibiotic resistance means you’ve got an infection that becomes very very difficult to treat when you’re in your clinical rotations to that you are likely to see our vr e and m RS a now v r e stands for vancomycin-resistant enterococci he thought that is a mouthful isn’t it so vancomycin is the drug-resistant Enterococcus means we used to be able to treat the bug Enterococcus with vancomycin but now it’s become resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or we also call that MRSA that means that that is the bug Staphylococcus that is now resistant to methicillin so mr sa and vr e are two really strong bugs that have become resistant to the drugs that use to treat them well let’s talk about kind of how does that happen now they’ve made a really cool drawing for you I love what they did with this drawing because it’ll really help you understand first of all look at the colors of the circles there’s green and it kind of progresses to a red color that means that the bugs themselves are getting increasingly resistant to drugs so see how that happens you start with just kind of oliver mariah t and they give you an antibiotic you come in with an infection you receive an antibiotic and then the antibiotic kills the non resistant bacteria so we’re moving from the gentleman and one to number two well now that we’ve killed the non resistant bacteria the resistant bacteria like having a party because now they start to multiply then that person spreads an infect a new person spreads that resistant bug to the next person and now it’s got the antibiotics fail to kill the resistant bacteria so using those steps one two three four and five that shows you how you go from having an infection using an antibiotic and how it can sometimes turn into antibiotic resistance okay now I don’t want to trip you out but microorganisms really are everywhere I remember when I was in college we used to share toothbrushes and drinks one microbiology course cured me of those practices I don’t drink after other people and I definitely don’t share a toothbrush anymore because microorganisms are everywhere I try not to think about it when I’m pumping gas or using an ATM machine because I know that those are really crazy places for bugs and especially try not to think about it when I’m at the gym because I know what happens there but that’s a healthy habit anyway but let’s look at the microorganisms that are everywhere because bacteria like we said are everywhere in the air in the ground in the water and they’re inside our body and definitely on our skin now not all bacteria are bad but they multiply very rapidly under favorable conditions so remember our body temperature is about 98.6 Fahrenheit that’s pretty warm and bacteria do very well at that temperature they thrive now bacteria can be either really good or really bad or kind of innocuous they’re not a big deal at all so they can either help us or really hurt us or just kind of not bother us at all we’ve got them all the way across the spectrum so as we’re entering into this discussion about antibiotics and how we treat affection keep in mind it’s impossible to avoid bacteria completely they are everywhere some of them are fantastic for us some of them are fantastically harmful to us but they are everywhere so what do we do I mean how let’s first talk about the good stuff let’s talk about how they can be beneficial to the body well um e coli these are in the gut and they help with digestion so E coli in the GI tract that’s really good we want it in the gut that helps us synthesize vitamin K they can also prevent harmful bacteria from taking hold because when I have bacteria that are good for me like e.coli they’re taking up some real estate they’re taking up some space in the nutrients that the harmful bacteria need see that was the problem sometimes when we kill the resistant bacteria that’s how the other resistant bacteria kick in so how do the good bacteria help us they take up resources in space to prevent those resistant organisms from taking over now how can I defend myself against infection well we’re gonna talk about the physical barriers first okay so if my skin stays intact that’s a really good thing that’s one of the great benefits of skin as long as it’s not broken it helps keep out a lot of nasty bugs I also have that cilia right in my respiratory mucosa they catch things and they can dump them down into your stomach that’s a really good deal because the gastric acid in my stomach will usually kill those bacteria so the first two host defenses were talking about our physical barriers like my skin and the Solia and the physiological defenses are like the gastric acid in my stomach now I’ve got a killer immune response if I’m a healthy functioning immune system they do some really awesome stuff because the antibodies recognize that bacteria and they mark it for destruction then the white blood cells can involve the infant they come racing in their phagocytic that’s a cool sounding word right macrophages and the neutrophils because the antibodies mark the bacteria they make it a target and the white blood cells know to rush in take care of them [Music] you

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