Fundamentals of Ayurveda

Fundamentals of Ayurveda


Hello doctors, myself Dr. Tejaswini Sameer
Bhale. I’m an Ayurveda physician. I’m working in Pune for last 15 years in my
private clinic “Prakruti Ayurved Panchkarma” and I am also associated with Atreya Innovations
Private Limited for the development of Nadi Tarangini. So today we are going to discuss about the
fundamentals of Ayurveda which we already did in our graduate and post-graduate level. But in our today’s practice, or in our clinical
practice, we need to revise all those things again. So today we are going to discuss from the
basics of Ayurveda which we can say as the, which will start from the tridosha. So we know already that Ayurveda is a holistic
medicine. It is not only related with the
cure of the disease but also for the well-being of the mind and body. So in Ayurveda we consider
body, mind and soul. That all we know. But when we are going to diagnose any disease
or treat any disease, we should consider that we have to cure not only the body, not only
the disease, but also the main cause and which is related with mind also. So the very first fundamental, that is we can
say our nyaya, is prakruti and purush nyaya And which we know that everything which is
present in the universe, as we say as a panchamahabhuta, they are all present in our body too. So our prakruti and purush nyaya is a very
important thing that we have to consider then only we can use each and every thing available
in the universe not only the medicines but also our diet, our food as a medicine to treat
our patients. So we know the panchamahabhuta and the relations
with tridosha. So as the panchamahabhuta we know that it
is pruthvi, apa, tej, vayu and akash. So for the kapha, the pruthvi and apa mahabhuta are involved. For the pitta, that is the fire and air that
is agni and vayu mahabhuta are involved. And in the vata, the akash and vayu mahabhuta
is there. So we have to consider all these panchamahabhuta
in our practice, and we have to correlate it with the tridosha that is vata, pitta,
kapha. And basically first comes the diagnosis that
is nidana. So we have to consider this prakruti and purush
nyaya. So now what are the tridosha that we know
very well that is vata, pitta and kapha. So these are the basic humors which are present
in our body and mind and universe too. So if they are in harmony, balanced state
then we can say we are in healthy state, the person is healthy. But the imbalance of this dosha, that is kshaya
and vriddhi, they cause the disease in our body. Mainly the vriddhi avastha gives the symptoms
and we call it and the group of those symptoms we name it as samvyadhi or disease. What is prakruti? Very important thing before going towards
the vikruti, we should know about the prakruti. Now we know that the prakruti forms at the
time of conception that means it is before the birth of a person. So which comes from the father and mother
and at the time of conception according to their diet and lifestyle the baby or the new
fetus gets their prakruti. So always we have to consider about the healthy
state, that is the prakruti of the patient when we are going to do the nidana or diagnosis
about any vikruti and to give the treatment. So we know the types of prakruti also, that
is ekadosha, samadosha and the combination of the dosha. So now in this lifestyle, the ekadosha and
samadosha prakriti is very rare, means as we are having very vitiated lifestyle, our
diet and all the things, so the ekadosha and samadosha prakriti is very rare. So the combination of the prakriti, maybe
vata-pitta, vata-kapha, kapha-pitta like prakriti we can find out and which is very important
to know to give the treatment part. Next to the dosha that we know is the dushyam. So what is the dushyam? When the vitiated dosha or the one who gets
vitiated by the dosha we call it as dushyam. So in that one we have the dhatu and mala
and manas. We know the seven dhatu that is saptadhatu
– rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja and shukra. So when we are talking about tridosha, so
how this tridosha are vitiating this saptadhatu, that we have to consider when we are having
any patient in our clinic and they are showing some symptoms. So according to the dosha, according to the
dhatu, which dhatu is vitiated and which dosha is vitiating it. So now we are having the mala also that we
are having trimala that is mala mutra and sweda We have to consider that too. Mala is not the part which we have to just
throw off from the body but they are removing the toxins, the ama. And which is the main metabolism of our body
that the feces, urine and sweda that is sweating is important through which we can do the detoxification
also. And the very important part is the mind. So we have to consider about the manas, the
guna that is satva and the dosha that is raja and tama of the mind. Now next to that we have to consider about
the srotas, that is our systems. Now we are having the tridosha, the saptadhatu,
trimala. So what is the srotas? Srotas is the system or the channel through which these toxins the dosha the toxins the dhatus moves. So these srotas should be very clean and the passage should be clear. Then only the energy could flow through it. So our system is having the dosha which is
related with the annavahasrotas, udakavahasrotas, pranavahasrotas, seven srotas of each dhatu,
three srotas of trimala and the medavahasrotas. Also according to some acharyas, the aartavahasrotas
and stanyavahasrotas is also included in the female which is the extra one that we have
to consider for the lady patients. Now when we are going to do nidana, what is
our main fundamental or which is our basic is trisutri of ayurveda. That is hetulingaushadnyan swasthaturaparayanam. That means when we have to consider any person
as swastha or hatura that means the healthy one or the diseased one, we have to consider
the hetu, that is the causes of the disease, linga, that
means the symptoms, and then the aushadha that means the treatment we have to give to
him. So what are the types of nidana that is diagnosis? Now when any person is coming to a clinic
by how the person is coming to us, how he is walking, how he’s talking, the style of
how they are sitting in that way we start our observations. So we call it as the trividh pariksha that
is darshan, sparshan and prashna which is the very basic thing that we have to do. The first one is the darshan means we are
observing the patient. How they are behaving, how they are talking
all those things, if any deformity is related with joints so we can observe that patient
couldn’t move properly, or any stiffness is there that is our darshan pariksha. The second one is the sparshan pariksha, that
means we are touching the patient. Or now we can auscultate the patient’s chest,
so by auscultating we are doing the sparshan pariksha. Now also in darshan pariksha in today’s we
are having all the technologies there so we are having the sonography, we are having the
x-ray, so that also comes under darshan pariksha. Now by sparsha, we are touching, we are examining,
per abdomen examination is there. If any joint is impaired, we are trying to
move it, we are going to touch it, where it is inflamed, whether they are having hot the
temperature we are checking is the sparshan pariksha. And the next one comes is the prashna that
means we are asking person about their past history, their family history and how the
disease had formed today about all the information about that patient that comes under the prashna
thing. So now to go in the deeper way that after
trividh pariksha, the acharya has suggested about ashtavidh pariksha. And in that one we are having the nadi, mala,
mutra, jibha, shabda, sparsha, drik and aakriti. So what are they that we know as Ayurveda
doctor we know all these things. That means first is the nadi pariksha, second
one is the stool examination, urine examination, tongue examination, ear, skin, eyes and the
physique of the patient. So this is the ashtavidh pariksha we are going
to do to get more and more knowledge about the disease. And after that, the Charaka has discussed
about the dashavidh pariksha. So there are the ten parts or ten types of
examination in which the very important is the prakriti, then vikruti, sara, samhanana,
pramana, saatmya, satva, ahara, vyayama and vaya. So we have to consider all these things too
in our diagnosis procedure when we are taking the case study of any patient. Now we know the dosha, we know dhatus, we
know dravya, that means the medicines or the diet we are going to use. But how these medicines work? How these doshas work? Everything which are going to work means they
are having some properties. So in our Ayurveda science, it’s described
about the Samanya Guna, that is, the properties that are present in the universe in each and
every object, in our body, dosha also, diet also, medicines also, and we are going to
consider these guna when we are going to do any diagnosis and giving the treatment. So what are these guna? We call it as samanya guna or the sharir guna which are described in a form of ten pairs, one and opposite to that is the second guna. So there are 20 guna we are having which are
the guru-laghu, sheeta-ushna, snigdha-ruksha, manda-tikshna, drava-sandra, picchil-vishaad,
mrudu and kathina, shlakshna and khara, sthira and sara, sthula and sukshma. And all these properties are present in each
and every organ, our system that is srotas, and also in the dosha. In the same way, some of the properties we
can observe in our Nadi Pariksha also. And about this Nadi Pariksha, in our Nadi
Tarangini report card, we are giving these guna in our report so that you can easily
diagnose which dosha or which guna is having kshaya and vriddhi.
According to that you can do towards the dosha and can give the treatment. The next nyaya or siddhanta is Shatpadarth
in which we are having samanya, vishesh, dravya, guna, karma and samavaya. In which the samanya is the similarity that
means the similar properties when come together enhances the action. Vishesh is the opposite, means the opposite
properties when opposite properties or the gunas through the vitiated dosha when come
together, it cures the disease. The third one is the dravya. Dravya means any medicine, herb, diet, food
which is when similar to the dosha or opposite to the dosha. But how it works is according to the guna. So the “dravyam gunena karma kurute”. That means every dravya is having some peculiar
properties with which only they can do any action. So the karma that means any chikitsa which
we are going to do is as per the guna of that dravya. And the samavaya means the dravya and guna
always live together. When they are apart, there will be no action
by any dravya. Now as we have done our nidana, the diagnosis,
now we know how the samprapti has happened, now we know the groups of symptoms and we
gave it as some vyadhi nama or any disease. Now we are going to do the chikitsa. The chikitsa will be as we know dosha or the
guna viparita. As the dosha vitiated we are going to give
the treatment opposite guna. So what is this chikitsa? “Yabhikri yabhir jayante sharire dhatavah
samah”. The treatment or any action which we are going
to do will make the dosha in balanced state. Samah, in the samah state. “Sachikitsa vikaranam karmatabhdishajan smrutam”. So the doctor should know that this treatment
or this action will make the dosha in a balanced state and we call it as the chikitsa which
is the vyadhi parimokshana that means, which will cure the disease. So now we know the chikitsa part that we are
having the shaman chikitsa and shodhana chikitsa. In shaman we are having langhan, deepan, pachan
and also snehan swedan, bruhan and then shodhana as a panchkarma we do. And every dravya which we are going to use
which will act as a dosha prakopaka, means if we are using the same properties, as the
dosha vitiated, it will take it to the utklesh avastha. That means it will provoke it and now we can
easily take it out from the body. The second one is the shaman chikitsa, that
means we are going to pacify the dosha. Whatever the vitiated doshas are there, we
are going to do the opposite guna chikitsa to pacify them. And the third one, which is very important,
is the swastha karaka. That means to maintain the health of a healthy
person, or to regain the health of a diseased man The last chikitsa we can say as the apurnarbhav
chikitsa or the rasayan chikitsa. Now what is the main aim of the Ayurveda? Now we know all the siddhanta. We are going to use it in our practice for
our nidana and our chikitsa, and we are going to advise the medicines, the diet, the lifestyle
to them. So what is the main aim? That is the swasthasya swasthyarakshanam aaturasya
vyadhi parimoksha. So when, if anyone is in a swastha state,
that is healthy state, we are going to maintain that health and if someone is diseased, we
are going to do the vyadhi parimokshanam, that means, we are going to treat them to
regain their health again. So this is the main aim or function of Ayurveda. The science itself tells about how to prevent
the disease in order to promote the quality of life and the longevity. Thank you!

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