Lipids as cofactors and signaling molecules | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy

Lipids as cofactors and signaling molecules | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy

– So sometimes I go for
a pretty long bike ride and when I do that I
usually end up kind of getting an ache in my
lower back or in my neck from being humped over the handlebars for a really extended period of time and when I do that, if
it’s really bothering me, sometimes I take some medication for it. So some medication, and the medication that I prefer to take would be an NSAID. So an NSAID, and you might have
heard of some common NSAIDs. You might even take them, too. Aspirin, for example,
is an NSAID, aspirin. And ibuprofen is another example, sometimes that’s called Motrin,
but it’s the same thing. Ibuprofen. But these drugs, they
help reduce that ache because that ache is
caused by inflammation in the muscles of my
lower back and in my neck. And these are anti-inflammatory drugs. In fact, NSAID stands for: Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug. And part of the reason why
these medications stop that ache is because they stop the
production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins. You see, prostaglandins
are lipid molecules that help signal inflammation. So if I can stop these prostaglandins then I can stop the kind of
further, and to some extent, the past production, of this inflammation and it’s affect in my body
which would be the ache. And prostaglandins fit into a larger class of lipids called non-hydrolyzable lipids. So, remember that we
broke lipids down into hydrolyzable and not hydrolyzable. Hydrolyzable are the lipids that can be further broken down into smaller units through hydrolysis reactions, and then we have the ones that can’t be. So prostaglandins fit
into this kind of category of not hydrolyzable lipids, and we talked about how
the hydrolyzable functions might include energy storage and kind of this structural function, while the not hydrolyzable
lipids, their main function revolves, at least in our
body, around signaling. So signals just like the prostaglandins signal this inflammation up here. So I think I have a
picture of prostaglandins that I can kind of fade in for us and this would be the
prostaglandin PGI2 here. But prostaglandins are
probably the most notable of a group of biologically
active compounds called eicosanoids, so let me
kind of write that in here. Eicosanoids. And eicosi is actually Greek for 20, so these are compounds
that have 20 carbons. And you can count, if you
want, the carbons in PGI2. But eicosanoids are kind of
famous for being local mediators which means they signal an effect in their immediate environment. And prostaglandins are probably the most noteworthy of these eicosanoids. So an example of the effects
that prostaglandins stimulate would be inflammation, we covered that, they also lower your blood pressure, prostaglandins, let’s see, they lower your gastric secretions, they
inhibit platelet aggregation, but there are a lot of
signals, or affects at least, that are signaled by these prostaglandins. So they are a signaling lipid. Now, another signaling lipid
that are kind of pretty famous, let me pull in a picture
of them, are steroids. I’ll write that in as well, steroids. So steroids are a tetracycline lipid which means they have kind of four rings, four cyclic rings, and you can
see this in the picture here. Maybe, I’ll get a darker color. So we’d have one, two,
three, and then four rings, and in each of these
steroids, the four rings three of them are six membered rings, and the fourth is this
kind of five membered ring. They all have this four ring structure and then they differ in
their little substituents but and I’ve already
done kind of an in-depth series of videos on the structure
and functions of steroids, but I’ll keep it brief here
and just kind of mention that steroids are another
non-hydrolyzable lipid and that have a signaling
affect in our body so cholesterol would be a steroid. This one right here is
actually testosterone. Testosterone, and this
one is progesterone. Progesterone. And these are examples of
sex hormones in our body, they signal things like
puberty, for example, and you have some other steroids
like the corticosteroids cortisone, and aldosterone. But if you want to hear, I
guess, a lot about steroids, you should definitely check out that other playlist of videos. But the last non-hydrolyzable
kind of signaling lipid that I want to talk about
are actually vitamins. So fat soluble vitamins. And I suppose I mis-spoke
a few minutes ago when I said that non-hydrolyzable lipids all have this signaling function because fat soluble
vitamins really function more as co-factors, so co-factors, which means that they help some enzyme in our body perform a function. Our cells don’t make these compounds, so we have to ingest them to help these enzymes perform their function. And there are four fat soluble vitamins, we have A, D, E, and K. And I think I’ve got a picture
here I can pull in for us. This one right here is A, and vitamin A is also called retinol,
and it’s needed for light sensitivity in our vision as well as kind of
healthy mucus membranes. It has a couple different
functions in our body. We have vitamin A, we also have vitamin D. Vitamin D helps regulate
phosphorous and calcium metabolism. So deficiencies can cause a number of different bone diseases
like rickets and osteoporosis. So we got A, D, we’ve got E right here. Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that help protects our neurological function. And then vitamin K at the bottom. Got Vitamin A, D, E,
and vitamin K regulates the synthesis of prothrombin
which helps our blood clot. So a lack can cause some
pretty serious bleeding issues. And I don’t know why it
kind of sticks in my mind, but A, D, E, and K are
the fat soluble vitamins and they fit into, they fit
into that broader category, again, of non-hydrolyzable lipids. Non-hydrolyzable lipids
which primarily function as signaling molecules, and I guess for the vitamins as co-factors. Co-factors as well. All within kind of that
big category of lipids.

3 Replies to “Lipids as cofactors and signaling molecules | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy”

  1. At 6:36. Vitamin D, if I'm not wrong, doesn't cause osteoporosis (porous bones) but osteomalacia (soft bones).

    Great video, guys! 🙂

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