List of plants used in herbalism | Wikipedia audio article

List of plants used in herbalism | Wikipedia audio article


This is a list of plants used or formerly
used as herbal medicine. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of
chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend
against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals is called herbal
medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when
consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. At least 12,000 such
compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total.These
phytochemicals are divided into (1) primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which
are found in all plants; and (2) secondary metabolites – compounds which are found
in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function. For example, some secondary
metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract
insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic
actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from
the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin
from the foxglove.Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through
processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional
drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of
how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines,
but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects.In Europe, apothecaries
stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus,
the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh
mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient
to soothe ulcers. Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine
are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy
is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are
those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.
Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole
plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make
pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include digoxin, from digitalis; capsaicine,
from chili; and aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white
willow. The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including
morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although
there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal
treatments.==A====B====C====D====E====F====G====H====I====J====K====L====M====N====O====P====Q====R====S====T====U====V====W====X====Y====Z====Databases==
Elizabeth M. Manhã; Maria C. Silva; Maria G. C. Alves; Maurício B. Almeida; Maria G.
L. Brandão (October 3, 2008). “PLANT – A bibliographic database about medicinal plants”.
Retrieved 2010-09-29. James Duke. “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and
Ethnobotanical Databases”. Retrieved 2011-09-29. “Protabase: Useful Plants of Tropical Africa”.
Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Archived from the original on 2011-12-16. Retrieved
2011-09-29. “Tropical Plant Database”. Raintree. Retrieved
2011-10-18. “Plant Database”. Plants for a Future. Retrieved
2011-10-18. “Vitamins & Supplements Center”. WebMD. Retrieved
2015-04-06.==See also====Notes==
^ Digitalis use in the United States is controlled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and
can only be prescribed by a physician. Misuse can cause death.
This encyclopedia is not a substitute for medical advice nor a complete description
of these herbs, their dangers (up to and including death), and their (in)compatibility with alcohol
or other drugs

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *