There Are Gravity Pulses Hiding in the Universe’s Most MASSIVE Stars

There Are Gravity Pulses Hiding in the Universe’s Most MASSIVE Stars


When you hear the words ‘blue supergiant’,
you’d be forgiven for thinking of a fairy tale creature. But the reality is actually far more fantastical:
elusive astrophysical bodies that are notoriously difficult to see and understand but which
hold the keys to the formation of stars and galaxies. And for the first time, we can now see what’s
inside them. In the classification of stars, temperature
is what determines color. Just like the hottest part of a flame is that
blue part at the bottom, the hottest stars in the universe are blue. And blue supergiant stars—as their name
would suggest—are huge, with masses anywhere upwards of 10 times that of our Sun. They’re also much brighter and much hotter
than mid-size stars like the Sun, making them some of the most visible and recognizable
stars in the night sky even though they’re actually quite rare. They burn hot and fast, only lasting, oh around
tens to hundreds of millions of years or so. And that’s compared to our Sun’s expected
lifetime of 10 billion years. Because they flame out so fast, relatively
speaking, that makes them difficult to study. With the advent of advanced telescopes both
on the ground and in space, we’ve been able to observe their surfaces, but we still know
relatively little about what goes on inside them. Something has to be happening to produce their
incredibly intense luminosity—their brightness—which seems to shimmer and twinkle. And new research has produced some of the
first models of the interior of these enigmatic stars, telling us a little more about how
all this showstopping behavior comes to be. A cooperative research effort between Newcastle
University in England and KU Leuven in Belgium used existing photometric data gathered by
NASA’s Kepler/K2 satellite and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite or TESS. These satellites’ original purpose was to
scour the galaxy for exoplanets, or planets beyond our solar system. But to do that, they surveyed hundreds of
thousands of the brightest stars near our sun, building a super handy data set for scientists
interested in looking at bright stars…data that confirms their existing hypotheses—and
simulations—of how these stars behave. Because the satellites, with their very sensitive
detectors, were looking out at the sky for a long enough period of time, they let us
see what we’ve never seen before: the patterns of shimmering and twinkling on blue supergiants. Or, to put it in a more ‘scientific’ way,
the coherent pulsations…indicating that the stars are being rippled by internal gravity
waves. These are not to be confused with gravitational
waves. Gravity waves are disturbances in some substance
due to the restoring effect of gravity: Say a substance was going in one direction because
of some other force like wind traveling across the ocean, but the water is also being forced
down by gravity, which—in combination with the water’s natural buoyancy and other physical
factors—results in disturbances of the water that we know as waves. This happens in our oceans and our atmosphere
all the time…but it’s a very different phenomenon from gravitational waves, which
are tiny perturbations in the fabric of spacetime due to some huge cosmic collision. Different things, confusingly similar name,
and though they’re common in our own oceans, gravity waves are also what’s happening
inside blue supergiant stars! In analyzing their data set, the research
team observed the presence of an entire spectrum of low-frequency gravity waves in blue supergiants. These flow through the star and break at the
surface, a lot like ocean waves breaking onto a beach. These frequencies also include standing waves,
a type of wave that’s a lot like a seismic wave from an earthquake. This revelation means that we can now delve
into blue supergiants using asteroseismology. Studying these frequencies allows astrophysicists
to work out the chemistry and physics that’s likely going on inside these stars, including
at their core. These calculations can tell us how metal is
being produced in the stars and how it moves around inside them… which is very important
because blue supergiants are like the metal factories of the universe, producing most
of the chemical elements on the periodic table past helium. But perhaps even more importantly, this new
information gives us insight we’ve never had before into how the lives of these stars
might end. When these incredibly energetic and short-lived
stars die, they explode into supernovae and form a black hole or a neutron star. What’s ejected in that explosion and what’s
left over afterwards has a significant impact on the formation of other stars and on the
evolution of the galaxy around it. As the researchers put it, massive stars like
blue supergiants, “determine the evolution of the cosmos.” The results of this research gives us new
ways to look at these potential supernovae, like using asteroseismology, to produce highly
accurate models of their ages, what’s going on in their core, their rotation, angular
momentum transport, interior mixing—all of which could tell us more about when and
how they’ll die, and what they’ll put out into the universe when they do…which
could potentially inform our understanding of how other galaxies and stars formed before
them, too. If you want even more galactic exploration,
check out my other video here about the universe’s first molecule. Make sure to subscribe to Seeker for more
explorations of the universe, and as always, thanks for watching.

100 Replies to “There Are Gravity Pulses Hiding in the Universe’s Most MASSIVE Stars”

  1. I wonder how big the earliest stars could have become, and how short lived and spectacular their deaths might have been. Maybe their resulting black holes grew to become the center of the galaxies we see today?

  2. Why is the more complicated stuff that unlocks more physics always harder to see/detect lol, sounds like a games tier system to me ???‍♂️

  3. Engineer's needa scrap everything on how they make space shuttles and do what the aliens do to travel at hyper sonic speed

  4. is it just me or are all the women getting fat she looks better fat they should do a video on women getting fat after a wile

  5. Do we have green supergiants ? If black hole is opposite of normal star what is opposite of elements formulating inside a star ?

  6. Boggles m'mind…holography, super blues… surrounded by the wackest you tube comments by us widgets or whatever… WTF, reality? What a day!

  7. "Brian, my alphabet soup is trying to tell me something. It says 'Oooooo'." "Peter, those are Cherrios."

  8. Wait until we have Quantum Computing making real-time simulations where classical computers and super computers couldn't even imagine in the future or possibly even sometime in the near future.. just a little later. This was in another video where Quantum Computers could map our solar system in real-time way beyond our classical computers "the computers we use now". Quantum Computers will find new materials by doing so in asteroids, and will help us to understand our Earth better, other planets better, and stars. Imagine what it will do for our sun and other stars like explained in the video you guys provided here? Now imagine when we go beyond real-time mapping of the inside of stars, to a point where we don't have to simulate in real-time to that scale, going way beyond that to the point where we can actually find out what's inside the stars while we circle around them with advanced propulsions for that time, showing the inside of the star and all, without really going inside it, just circling it after having advanced propulsion, that would be similar to mapping it at a much larger scale than even the Quantum Computing ability mentioned. Have I blown your mind yet?

  9. The blue part of a flame is due to atomic emission of the gas combined with a lack of yellow glowing carbon particles. Not temperature.

  10. this Bitch doesnt know what shes talking about, you can tell shes just reading what they are writing, dumbass

  11. I am super confused between gravity waves and gravitational waves. Do gravity waves ripple? if they do, how are they different from gravitation waves and if they don't why we call it gravity waves instead of just gravity.

  12. You know when they got to Pluto they were totally shocked by what the found. Everything they thought they knew… they didn’t know.

  13. How do we know that our Sun was not one a blue giant and has burned down? Like our Sun could be an older Sun.

  14. Ok i had to stop your video right after you said, the blue flame is the hottest part of the flame. Well thats incorrect its the orange part of the flame, the blue part is the air gas mixture.

  15. How long is a collapsing period for a blue super giant? Or is it a gradual process over its entire lifetime? Will we be able to witness a live feed of a blue super giant collapsing without an artists depiction someday?

  16. You know , her an her honey potting ass and sexy nerd glasses ( that say my IQ is higher than Einstein but I want to party) has a significant impact on potential super massive blue balls .. of hydrogen ,an such as etc.

  17. I am officially convinced that with every new discovery, they’ll say ”it holds the key to the beginning of the universe”

    Every. Single. Time.

  18. Inspired by you and other science communicators at seeker ,I am planning to become a science reporter and communicator as I have wide interest in STEM and want to cover and communicate it . I would appreciate any advice.
    Good day☺️☺️

  19. The blue part of a flame is not the hottest, not even close its the coldest, the hottest part is the non color Part between the yellow/orange and the blue part.
    Bluepart has to much O2 and orangepart to much Carbon, part in the middle has perfect ratio of both.

  20. Im curious to know if a blue supergiant star would make a good sun for a planet in another solar system? If humans ever colonise another planet outside our solar system would a blue giant be a good option? Or is it too bright, hot, dense, large in the sky?

  21. In other words, they're just oscillating matter waves caused by gravitation, in this case, stellar seismic waves or simply stellar oscillations. Gravity is still the gravitation that occurs on earth.

  22. Blue super giant stars can produce elements up to and including iron, specifically Fe-56. Every element/isotope heavier than Fe-56 has to be made by a supernova.

  23. seeker is the best scientific channel on the youtube!To all the science lover out there we would like to invite you to our new science channel!

  24. Very good host seems genuinely interested in what she is saying. not being overly sexual yet looks great just being smart. Wish more women were like her

  25. I am wondring when will they give us a clue of where to find intelligence or say how to find THEM… They gave enough to scientists of 20th century… Or may be we are some duffers and cant understands..

  26. So what you're saying is…Bigger stars burn out and die with passion, and makes some brand new, way crazier shit

  27. Eeer… I don't think you can compare the colors of flames and their temperatures with the colors of stars and their own temperatures: the chemicals involved in both processes play a huge role in the color definition. Am I wrong?

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