Top 10 Most Extreme Substances

Top 10 Most Extreme Substances

Extreme has (luckily) lost most of its buzz-word
status. It’s mostly back to meaning things on the
fringe, way out near the edges, where they blow our minds with their extremeness, rather
than simply having 3 times the corn syrup and colors nature never intended. That being said, for every type of substance,
there is a “most extreme” version. Sure, we’ve all heard stories about magnets
strong enough to cripple kids from the inside, and acids that will eat through your hands
in seconds, but did you know there are even more “extreme” versions of those? Here are the top 10 most “out there” substances
I could find. 10. The Darkest Substance Known to Man What do you get when you stack carbon nanotubes
on their ends and sandwich them together? A material that absorbs 99.9% of the light
that touches it. The microscopic surface of the material is
rough and uneven, which breaks up the light and makes it a poor reflector. Then add to that carbon nanotubes act as superconductors
in certain arrangements, which makes them excellent light absorbers, and you have a
perfect storm of black. Scientists are really excited about the potential
applications of the substance; since virtually no light is “wasted”, it would be used
to improve optical tools like telescopes, and even be used to make nearly 100% efficient
solar collectors. 9. The Most Flammable Substance A lot of things burn with astounding intensity;
Styrofoam, napalm, marshmallows are just the beginning. But what if there was a material that could
set sand on fire? Okay, so clearly that was a loaded question,
but it was a necessary set-up. Chlorine triflouride has the dubious honor
of being terrifyingly flammable, to the point that history’s evil boy-scouts, the Nazis,
deemed it too dangerous to work with. When people who consider genocide their life’s
goal don’t want to use something because it is too deadly, it bears treating it with
some caution. There is a story that a ton of the stuff was
spilled once and caught fire, and it burned through 12 inches of concrete and another
meter of sand and gravel before going out. I hate to say it, but in this case, the Nazi’s
were right. 8. The Most Toxic Poison Quick, what’s the last thing you would want
to inject into your face? Aside from something that burns through concrete,
and maybe the world’s worst acid (coming soon), I would think “The world’s deadliest
poison” would be in the top 3 with them. Not so, though, in the medical community;
you’ve all heard of Botox, no doubt, and “deadliest poison” is it’s main claim
to fame. Botox uses botulinum toxin, produced by the
bacteria Clostridium botulinum, and it is so deadly, an amount equal to a grain of salt
is enough to kill a 200 lb man. In fact, they even suggest that it would only
take 4kg, properly dispersed, to kill every last person on earth. Maybe those crows feet around your eyes would
be better treated with an angry rattlesnake…. 7. The Hottest Substance Ever There are few things known to man hotter than
the interior of a freshly microwaved Hot Pocket, but this stuff manages to break even that
record. Created by smashing gold atoms together at
nearly the speed of light, it’s called a quark-gluon soup, and it reaches a balmy 4
trillion degrees Celsius, a mere 250,000 times hotter than the inside of the sun. The amount of energy released in the collision
was sufficient to melt protons and neutrons, which in itself could be featured on a list
of things you never even knew were possible. Scientists think this substance could give
us an idea of what the birth of our universe was like, so it’s good to see they aren’t
just creating tiny supernovas for the fun of it. However, the really good news is that the
soup was only a trillionth of a centimeter across, and only lasted for a trillionth of
a trillionth of a second. 6. Most Acidic Acid Acid is scary stuff; they gave one of the
scariest movie monsters ever acid blood to make it scarier than just a simple killing
machine (the Alien), so it’s pretty ingrained in our psyche that getting dissolved is bad. If the Aliens had been filled with fluoroantimonic
acid, they not only would have probably fallen through the floor until they hit dirt, the
vapors given off by their dying bodies would have killed everyone around them. It is 21019 times more powerful than sulphuric
acid, and can even eat through glass. And it explodes when exposed to water. And when it is reacting, it gives off poisonous
fumes that can kill everyone in a room. Maybe we should move on from this one… 5. The Most Explosive Expolosive This particular honor is actually currently
shared between two compounds; HMX and Heptanitrocubane. Heptanitrocubane mostly exists in labs, and
is similar to HMX, but has a denser crystal structure, giving it greater destructive potential. HMX, on the other hand, exists in quantities
large enough to be physically threatening. It is used in solid rocket fuel, shaped charges,
and even nuclear weapon detonators. That last one is the scariest, because despite
how easy movies make it look, starting the fission/fusion reaction that makes bright
glowing radioactive mushroom clouds is not an easy ball to get rolling, but HMX is up
to the task. 4. The Most Radioactive Substance Speaking of radiation, it’s worth noting
that the glowing green rods of “plutonium” on the Simpsons are completely fictional. Just because something is radioactive does
not mean it glows. I mention that because Polonium-210 is so
radioactive, it glows blue. A former soviet spy, Alexander Litvinenko,
was duped into consuming some without his knowledge, and he died of cancer shortly thereafter. This is not that kind of thing you ever want
to mess with; the glow is caused by the air around it being excited by the radiation,
and it can actually heat objects nearby. If the fact that something highly radioactive
gives off heat, keep in mind that when we usually think “radiation”, we are thinking
of things like a nuclear reactor or explosion, where an actual fission reaction is happening. This is just your run of the mill loss of
ionized particles, not a runaway splitting of atoms. 3. The Hardest Substance If you thought the hardest substance on earth
was diamond, that was a good, if inaccurate guess. It is technically an aggregated diamond nanorod. It is actually a collection of nano-scale
diamonds, and it is the least compressible, hardest substance known to man. They aren’t naturally occurring, which is
actually kind of cool, since it implies we could one day coat our cars in this stuff
and just walk it off when we collide with a train (not really). It was developed in Germany in 2005 and will
likely be used in the same capacity as industrial diamond, except will be more wear-resistant
than regular diamonds. That’s harder than algebra. 2. The Most Magnetic Substance If Magneto was a small black lump, that would
be him. The substance, developed in 2010 out of iron
and nitrogen, is 18% more magnetic than the previous record holder, and is so powerful,
it has forced scientists to revisit how magnetism works. The man who discovered the substance has taken
great pains to ensure that his work can be reproduced by other scientists, because a
similar compound was reported developed in Japan back in 1996, but other physicists could
not replicate it, so it was never officially accepted. No word on whether Japanese physicists have
to commit Sepuku under these circumstances. If it can be reproduced, it could spell a
new age of efficient electronics and magnetic engines, maybe even powered by number 10. 1. The Most Super Superfluid Superfluidity is a state of matter (like solid
or gaseous) that occurs at extremely low temperatures, has high thermal conductivity (every ounce
of it is always exactly the same temperature), and no viscosity. Helium 2 is the “most” example of this. A cup of He2 will spontaneously flow up and
out of a container, as if it just decided to leave. It also seeps right through otherwise solid
materials because its complete lack of friction allows it to flow through otherwise invisible
holes that would not allow regular helium (or water for that matter) to flow through. He2 did not wind up at number 1 just because
of its ability to act like it has a mind of its own, though, it is also the most efficient
thermal conductor on earth; several hundred times that of copper. Heat moves so fast through Helium 2 that it
moves in waves, like sound (and is fact known as “second sound”), rather than dispersion,
where it simply transfers from one molecule to another. Incidentally, the forces governing He2’s
ability to crawl walls is called “third sound”. You can’t get much more extreme than a substance
that required the definitions of 2 new types of sound.

100 Replies to “Top 10 Most Extreme Substances”

  1. Just a note here. "Fluoroantimonic acid (HSbF6), the strongest known superacid, is made by combining HF with SbF5. It can be as much as 2 × 10^19 times stronger than 100% H2SO4. However, superacids are all equally strong in aqueous solution; other solvents must be used to observe their effects." – American Chemical Society.

  2. This shows you just how dangerous Putin is. That radioactive substance could have killed everybody in the immediate area.

  3. Eines Tages werden Sie bald bemerken, dass der Jeff jetzt furzt. Scheiße Decke kommt vom Ende des Tages. Oh lieber Herr, der Furz des Jeff erinnert an die Decke. Scheiße Decke fallen von einem Eimer Schinken. jeff furzt, jeff kackt, kleine beschissene Decke !!!

  4. Azidoazide Azide is actually the single most explosive substance ever created by mankind created in 2010. It makes everything else seem tame and safe and is so reactive it can't be measured. Apparently anything right up to and including absolutely nothing can set it off. Here's a list of the things the scientists that descovered it found made it go off.

    1. Moving it.
    2. Touching it.
    3. Dispersal in a solution
    4. Leaving it totally undisturbed on a glass plate.
    5. Exposure to bright light.
    6. Exposure to X-rays
    7. Putting it in a spectrometer
    8. Turning on Spectrometer when it's next to it.
    9. ABSOLUTELY NOTHING – It was left in a shock proof explosive case in a dark climate controlled room and it still blew up.

    That's so much more explosive than the 2 substances you say are the most explosive.

    Information thanks to the SciShow.

  5. I miss resiniferatoxin, the "hottest" substance om earth. At 10 billion scoville it's 10,000 times hotter than a carolina reaper chili.

  6. 3:15 It would be more impressive and useful if it lasted indefinitely (magnetic/gravitational containment), had a density comparable to neutronium (probably even denser, since the quarks are no longer bound to make neutrons), and had a volume measured in cubic meters. If it's a flash that's too short to be timed by even an atomic clock (and only guessed at by the math) then it shouldn't count.

  7. Of course you can the temperature of the center of the sun, oil just measured it yesterday and yup, its hot… rofl and smh

  8. My Taco Bell farts are so extreme that these cripplers explode out of my anus, destroy all life it it's way and fills the black hole in space. It's buttox on steroids. Let us pray.

  9. This version of the Simon just doesn't seem to be up to the same standards of the other the simons. Are his shady captors getting sloppy with the special effects?

  10. Just a note, the helium 2 is not a stable isotope that is made of only 2 protons, what you guys were describing is helium 4. When talking about isotopes it is their weight that you mention as their name gives the proton count.
    Also thought that for the most explosive substance you will have azidoazide azide as it is so unstable that it will explode from touching it, absorbing light, trying to dissolve it and even nothing. Being stored at a facility that is designed to keep explosive substances stable it still explodes.

  11. For future videos, Helium-2 effectively doesn't exist. Just "helium" in the general sense (or Helium-4 and Helium-3, if you want to be specific) become superfluid. The video you reference points out that helium is element 2, but saying "helium 2" refers to the isotope of helium of mass 2, i.e. just two protons, which is so unstable it's unclear that's it's ever actually been observed

  12. Would anyone like to buy a slightly used Chlorine Trifluoride cannon?
    Only one previous careful owner.
    Who is mostly melted, burned, poisoned, and dead.

  13. 4:59–5:05 HOW can this dude ACCIDENTALLY consume something blue glowing?!?!?!?!?!?!?!

    7:15 oh man that screams after a new Intel i9 9900K ultra overclock record?

  14. In Spanish someone who is hard is a cheapskate. I think you already made a video about the world's most infamous cheapskates. If not make one (for free that is, hehehe!)

  15. Those carbon nano tubes would be really useful for vehicle body panels. Can't think of a better way to beat LIDAR.

  16. Thanks for the very interesting information presented, Simon, Shell et al. Now I wonder how many of these things the HOIC (Head Orange In Charge) is going to try and send into the eye of a hurricane, in order to dissipate the massive storm! ???

  17. Maybe they're extreme, but are they mega extrem? hardcore to the max? ultra mega hardcore to the max?

  18. Chlorine trifluoride isn't flammable, it's oxidising. It makes other substances flammable, rather than being flammable in and of itself.

  19. Litvinenko wasn't alive long enough to get cancer from his radiation poisoning.
    Most acidic acid is an entry that should be filled with caveats because acidity is a slippery term with a lot of definitions.
    Similarly, a superfluid isn't the Most Superfluid, it is or it isn't. And, Helium-2 isn't really a thing.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes are also stronger than graphene, and could be used for armor. Dunno how well such armor would do against handheld railguns, but they’d probably blunt the impact of gunpowder weapons immensely.

  21. Hydrofluoric acid is probably the most dangerous thing I will ever feasibly work with. It's used to clean and etch glass and semiconductor wafers, and is used (in my case) to reverse engineer ICs by dissolving certain layers inside the chip and thus making them easier to photograph. The terrifying thing about it, is that coming into contact doesn't hurt… until 24 hours after it's too late, by which time your bones melt. It has an extremely high affinity for calcium, so there is an antidote in the form of calcium gluconate gel. Semi fabs have special epipens of the stuff because it's so dangerous. Do not look up what a HF injury looks like.

  22. Small errata – the most 'explosive explosive' is a matter/antimatter collision. This annihilates ALL the matter/antimatter completely. The fact that we don't use it is irrelevant.

  23. I just thought extreme meant the version where you have to wear safety goggles. Snowboarding with safety goggles becomes extreme snowboarding. Chemistry with safety goggles becomes extreme chemistry. Chess with safety goggles, well that just ome off as very odd.

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